The main difference lies in the focal lengths.
A prime lens has a single focal length and a maximum aperture of f2.8 to f1.2. When you mount a prime lens to your camera and look through the viewfinder, you’ll see one field of view. Prime lenses don’t zoom. So, if you want to fill your frame with more background, or get a closer look at a subject, you need to physically move. In the photography world, this is known as “zooming with your feet.” Prime lenses require skill and patience, but they offer plenty of reward. More on that in a minute!
On the other hand, a zoom lens offers multiple focal lengths that are measured in millimetres. For example, a standard 18-55mm lens has a range between 18mm at the widest point, and 55mm at the longest, and you can play around with any focal length between those two points to compose your picture. Also known as superzoom lenses, these lenses are easy to use. To zoom in or out of a scene, you simply rotate the ring on the lens barrel.